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Hunedoara Karst Features

A characteristic of Hunedoara County is the great variety of relief and alternation of low-lying areas, with the high mountainvalleys. An overview, however, clearly shows the predominance of mountain relief, culminating in altitudes above 2500 m in Parang and Retezat Mountains.

From geological point of view, to the mountain regions, correspond generallygranite, granodiorite, crystalline schists and limestones, and the lower regions are formed on sedimentary soft rocks, (clay, gravel, sand, sandstone).

The limestone depositshave generally a massiveposition adjacent to the mountains, theirgenesis being related to the operation in the past of the depression areas astectonic pools coveredby water. Therefore the limestones here are precipitation or organogenous limestone (cochilifere or coraligene).

The landscape is formed on limestone presents specific featuresdepending on the thickness and extension of the limestone mass of the chemistry of waters in the region, to the degree of metamorphosis and the altitude at which it develops.Hunedoara County is among the few areas of the country where alpine karst is found.

The main core of Hunedoara karst development are: Mountains Sureanu, Retezat Mountains, The Ore Mountains and Poiana Rusca Mountains.

Developing outstandingkarst landscape wasfavored by climatic, lithologic and structural factors. Permanent hydrographic network, abundant rainfall, richvegetation, thick layers of limestone, the presence of faults, fractures, the stratification of fissure have beentraining the premises of formation and evolution. The karst topography is structured in the exo and endokarst. The characteristicelement of the exocarstic relief are the forms of depression, concave.

The karst ecosystemspresent in the mountains are of great ecological importance, not only for the karst relief but also for the characteristic habitat.Currently caves are home to important species of bat caves, and in the past they have been disputed asthe living environment by the cave bear(Ursus spelaeus) and by the prehistoric man (Neanderthalman).