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Protection

Protection of bats is a necessity right now. The Chiropterapopulation of Europe is in sharp decline. Causes of the decrease in the number of bats are natural, but mostly anthropogenic.

Natural causes are:
- Low birth rate(1-2 pups /year)
- Vulnerability ofbat pups
- Rapid growth of water in caves galleries
- Extended cold periods
- Internal and external parasites
- The predators (stonemarten, fox, rat,cat, bird andshouted, swallows falcon, peregrine falcon, eagle owl, etc.).

Anthropogenic pressure isseveral for decades the main cause of reducing the number ofbats. They are affected by:
- Feeding habitats destruction through deforestation
- Cutting of oldtrees, which canprovide shelter for bats
- Pesticide use inagriculture leads to their accumulation in the body of insects, which are consumedby bats, leading to their poisoning
- Practicing extensively in agriculture of monocultures(one type of cultivated plants) greatly reduces the food supply of bats

- Drainage and other facilitieshave reduced land areas with swampsand the feeding habitatsof bats
- Demolition of oldbuildings or their renovation without being provided with inputs under the roofs to allow anthropophile bat speciesharboring
- Uncontrolled growth of speleological tourism (visitsduring hibernation, maternity, hostility of tourists, artificial lighting, noise
- The increasing number of wind farms (bats hitthe propeller-frequency installations)

A rolein protecting bats should have awareness campaignsabout the importance of bats. Negative opinions andfears of people about bats must be removed, thus creating positive attitudestowards them.

Rules on the protection of bats incaves:
1. Avoid visitingcaves with bats.If such visits, the group will not exceed 5 people.
2. Avoid visits to caves when there are maternity colonies (May-August)
3. Avoid visits to caves during hibernation (late October - mid-April)
4. Do not stay in places where there are bats
5. Move quietly, do not run or throwstones at bats
6. Moving in the cave is done in single fileon a unique path
7. Do not use flamelight sources (carbide lamps, torches, candles), but electric lights
8. Do not smoke in the cave
9. Do not step on piles of guano (they are a source of trophic for some cave creatures)

10. No food scraps,garbage or carbate slurry abandonedin caves
11. Not directlyilluminated bats (withlantern, flash, projectors)
12. Follow the guidesor the custodians of caves
13. Do not damage the protected cave gates
14. Bat cavesport construction must comply with 15 cm distancebetween horizontal bars and between the verticalbars 70 cm

Bats and forest shelters protection


1. Raising awareness amongst forest managers and forestowners
2. Avoid deforestation
3. Avoid cutting old trees which provide shelters for bats
4. Forestation programs implementation
5. Prohibit the use of chemicals and toxic tomammals, when forester pest is desired
6. Installation of artificial shelters - housesfor bats, young forests,old forests withouttrees (location boxesto a minimum is 4 m, in places with easy access for bats)

Anthropophile Bats Protection


Anthropophile bats are those who shelter inbuildings made
​​by men. To take advantage of their presence we must impose the following :


1. Raising people’s awareness/ education about the importance of bats
2. Restoration, not demolition of old buildings that are home to bats
3. Artificial sheltersconstruction (bat houses) to 4 m of soil
4. Limit use of toxicchemicals for treatment,wood preservation and fireproofing and buildinguse
5. Installation of plastic sheets colonies of bats that live underbridges, houses, batdroppings collection (guano-phosphate can be used as natural fertilizer)
6. Monitoring of batcolonies

Legislation


The first decree that aimed at the protection of batswas developed in Holland in 1888

The most important law for the protection of bats in Romania is Law 90/2000 (promulgated by presidential decree on 8 May 2000)