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The Ore Mountains

The Ore Mountainscarbonate rocks, to become karst, are the crystalline limestone, the Mesozoic limestones and the travertines.A special category in which was formed the pseudokarst are the volcanic rocks from the Neogene, in form of lava and pyroclastic form.

The Crystalline Limestone Karst Topography (average Paleozoic, upperCambrian).

These rocks are the oldestrocks in the Ore Mountains carbonate, found intwo areas:

- Inthe north-western extension with Sohodolului Valley– on the right side of the Small Aries, the White Cris springs,up to Bulzestii de Sus. Although this type of rock is notconductive to an intense karst here were formed caves with a large enough expansion: Poieni Pothole(D = 348m,d =- 163m),Bears Cave from Bulzeşti(D = 1195m,d =- 68m, 5 m) The Potholein Dole (d= 57m, d =- 38m), Hoanca Sturului Pothole (d = 127m, d =- 61), Cave Lucia (d = 202m, d =- 20m).

- The crystallinearea at Rapolt- a limestone baroriented from east to west between Geoagiu şi Rapolt-Banpotoc . Here are representative: Cepturarii Pothole (D= 3057m, d=- 58m), Boiului Pothole (D = 87m, d =- 32m), Cave Bisericuta de la Cizmau (D = 143m, d =- 40).

Foto 1: Bears Cave from Bulzesti

The Mesozoic Limestone Karst Topography (upper Jurassic -Lower Cretaceous).

The Mesozoic limestones form an isolatedmassive karst and limestone bars.

The Massifs which are isolated by their position, are:

- the ridge: Vulcan, Bradisor, Stramba,Plotun

-the slope: Ionileştilor Stone

- valley: massif Grohot.


The Hydrogeological regime of isolatedmassif limestone karst causesthe formation of small holes, generally modestfossils, concretions : Secuiului Cave in Massif Vulcan (D = 41m, d = 9 m), Bisericuta Cave in Massif Bradisor (D= 28m, d = -8m), Taru Lung Cave in Massif Stramba (d = 60m, d =- 9m), Ionilesti Cave, Massif Ionilesti(d= 386m, d =- 37m, = 22 m), the cave Grohotele (d= 149m, d = -15m), Cave Hodobana (d = 148m, d =- 24m), both in massif Grohot.

The Limestone Bars are represented by the limestone alignments : Pleaşa Moşului -Pleaşa Ardeului (10km), Băiţa - Feredeu (4km), Pleaşa Mare-Pleaşa Mica-Piatra Sâncoiaşului (3km). Rivers have cut here deepvalley sectors:cheile Ardeului, Glodului, Cibului, Bâcâiei, Madei, Crăciuneşti.

Cheile CraciunestiFoto 4 – The Hill and Craciunesti Canyon

The endokarst of the limestone bars is represented by caves in the slope correlated with different stages of evolutionof the valley: Cave Copta Sârbilor (D=51m, d=+12m) in Ardeului Canyon, Cave with Three Mouths (D=162m, d=-2m, +16m) in Cibului Canyon, the Pothole Gaura Mare Fară Fund (D=232m, d=-28m, +2m) in Glodului Canyon, Cave Balogu (D=118m, d=+18m) and Cave Zidu de Jos (D=110m, d=+8m) in Crăciuneşti Canyon.

Karst Topography on Travertine

The carbonaterocks- the travertines and tuff limestones. The unloading areas are found on the borders of the slopes in the north of Plateau Poieni respectivelyVidra Waterfall alignment - IzbuculLertii – Usa Bontii and the southern border Rapolt crystallinemassif, respectively Geoagiu area - Bobalna - Rapolţel.
The Endokarst cavetravertines is characterized by the presence of the primary goals during the remainingkarst carbone. Such is the cave no. 1 from Falls Vidra(D = 9m) or the small cavitiesin Bobalna.

The Pseudokarst

The pseudo-karstic relief is formed in pyroclastite, lava and breciiandetitice, and they are products of the Neogene volcanoes. The cavities formed in these rocks are the result of tectonic movements and gravitationalimbalances. Such phenomenaencountered in common Bucureşci – Pestera de la Vizuini, at Bloju – Pestera de la Atelierul lui Iotu, and the upper Caraciului Valley (Cave of Brecie).